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Published Published online: 16 June 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.002
This paper recounts the discovery of holographic interferometry, discusses its development, and itemizes some of its major applications.
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Published Published online: 24 February 2021,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.005
Silicon (Si) photonics is a disruptive technology on the fast track to revolutionise integrated photonics. An indispensable branch thereof, heterogeneous Si integration, has also evolved from a science project 15 years ago to a growing business and compelling research field today. We focus on the scope of III-V compound semiconductors heterogeneously integrated on Si substrates. The commercial success of massively produced integrated optical transceivers based on first-generation innovation is discussed. Then, we review a number of technological breakthroughs at the component and platform levels. In addition to the numerous new device performance records, our emphasis is on the rationale behind and the design principles underlying specific examples of materials and device integration. Finally, we offer perspectives on development trends catering to the increasing demand in many existing and emerging applications.
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Published Published online: 21 June 2021,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.017
Three-dimensional (3D) laser micro- and nanoprinting based upon multi-photon absorption has made its way from early scientific discovery to industrial manufacturing processes, e.g., for advanced microoptical components. However, so far, most realized 3D architectures are composed of only a single polymeric material. Here, we review 3D printing of multi-materials on the nano- and microscale. We start with material properties that have been realized, using multi-photon photoresists. Printed materials include bulk polymers, conductive polymers, metals, nanoporous polymers, silica glass, chalcogenide glasses, inorganic single crystals, natural polymers, stimuli-responsive materials, and polymer composites. Next, we review manual and automated processes achieving dissimilar material properties in a single 3D structure by sequentially photo-exposing multiple photoresists as 3D analogs of 2D multicolor printing. Instructive examples from biology, optics, mechanics, and electronics are discussed. An emerging approach – without counterpart in 2D graphical printing – prints 3D structures combining dissimilar material properties in one 3D structure by using only a single photoresist. A controlled stimulus applied during the 3D printing process defines and determines material properties on the voxel level. Change of laser power and/or wavelength, or application of quasi-static electric fields allow for the seamless manipulation of desired materials properties.
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Marc Sartison, Ksenia Weber, Simon Thiele, Lucas Bremer, Sarah Fischbach, et al.
Published Published online: 31 March 2021,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.006
Future quantum technology relies crucially on building quantum networks with high fidelity. To achieve this challenging goal, it is of utmost importance to connect individual quantum systems such that their emitted single photons overlap with the highest possible degree of coherence. This requires perfect mode overlap of the emitted light from different emitters, which necessitates the use of single-mode fibres. Here, we present an advanced manufacturing approach to accomplish this task. We combined 3D printed complex micro-optics, such as hemispherical and Weierstrass solid immersion lenses, as well as total internal reflection solid immersion lenses, on top of individual indium arsenide quantum dots with 3D printed optics on single-mode fibres and compared their key features. We observed a systematic increase in the collection efficiency under variations of the lens geometry from roughly 2 for hemispheric solid immersion lenses up to a maximum of greater than 9 for the total internal reflection geometry. Furthermore, the temperature-induced stress was estimated for these particular lens dimensions and results to be approximately 5 meV. Interestingly, the use of solid immersion lenses further increased the localisation accuracy of the emitters to less than 1 nm when acquiring micro-photoluminescence maps. Furthermore, we show that the single-photon character of the source is preserved after device fabrication, reaching a \begin{document}$g^{(2)} (0)$\end{document} value of approximately 0.19 under pulsed optical excitation. The printed lens device can be further joined with an optical fibre and permanently fixed.This integrated system can be cooled by dipping into liquid helium using a Stirling cryocooler or by a closed-cycle helium cryostat without the necessity for optical windows, as all access is through the integrated single-mode fibre. We identify the ideal optical designs and present experiments that demonstrate excellent high-rate single-photon emission.
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Accepted  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.041
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Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technology is widely used in the fabrication of high-precision optical elements. The material removal mechanism of MRF has not been fully understood because MRF technology involves the integration of electromagnetics, contact mechanics, and materials science. In this study, the rheological properties of the MR polishing fluid in dynamic vibration mode have been investigated. We propose that the shear-thinned MR polishing fluid over the polishing area should be considered a dense granular flow, based on which a new contact model of MRF over the polishing area has been constructed. Removal function and processing force test experiments were conducted under different working gaps. The normal pressure and effective friction equations over the polishing area were built based on the continuous medium and dense granular flow theories. Then, a novel MRF material removal model was established. A comparison of the results of the theoretical model with actual polishing results demonstrated the accuracy of the established model. The novel model proposed herein reveals the generation mechanism of shear force over a polished workpiece and realizes effective decoupling of the main processing parameters that influence the material removal of MRF. The results of this study provide new and effective theoretical guidance for the process optimization and technology improvement of MRF.
Accepted  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.039
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In recent years, multi-photon 3D laser printing has become a widely used tool for the fabrication of micro- and nanostructures for a large variety of applications. Typically, thorough sample characterisation is key for an efficient optimisation of the printing process. To date, three-dimensional microscopic inspection has usually been carried out on finished 3D printed microstructures, that is, using ex-situ approaches. In contrast, in-situ 3D characterization tools are desirable for quickly assessing the quality and properties of 3D printed microstructures. Along these lines, we present and characterise a Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system that can be readily integrated into an existing 3D laser lithography setup. We demonstrate its capabilities by examining different 3D printed polymer microstructures immersed in a liquid photoresist. In such samples, local reflectivity arises from the refractive index contrasts between the polymerised and non-polymerized regions. Thus, the refractive index of the printed material can be extracted. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reflectivity of polymer-monomer transitions exhibits time-dependent behaviour after printing. Supported by transfer-matrix calculations, we explain this effect in terms of the time-dependent graded-index transition originating from monomer diffusion into the polymer matrix. Finally, we show exemplary 3D reconstructions of printed structures that can be readily compared with 3D computer designs.
Accepted  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.037
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Digital holographic microscopy is a single-shot technique for quantitative phase imaging of samples, yielding thickness profiles of phase objects. It provides sample features based on their morphology, leading to their classification and identification. However, observing samples, especially cells, in fluids using holographic microscopes is difficult without immobilizing the object. Optical tweezers can be used for sample immobilization in fluids. The present manuscript provides an overview of our ongoing work on the development of a compact, low-cost microscopy system for digital holographic imaging of optically trapped samples. Integration of digital holographic microscopy system with tweezers is realized by using the optical pickup unit extracted from DVD burners to trap microsamples, which are then holographically imaged using a highly compact self-referencing interferometer along with a low-cost, in-house developed quadrant photodiode, providing morphological and spectral information of trapped particles. The developed integrated module was tested using polystyrene microspheres as well as human erythrocytes. The investigated system offers a multitude of sample features, including physical and mechanical parameters and corner frequency information of the sample. These features were used for sample classification. The proposed technique has vast potential in opening up new avenues for low-cost, digital holographic imaging and analysis of immobilized samples in fluids and their classification.
Accepted  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.034
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Holographic and 3D-measurement processes are an often-used tool in industry, medicine, and scientific applications. While small deviations of objects can be visualized by holographic means with high accuracy, optical systems with active structured illumination are a reliable source of absolute 3D-information in these fields. The combination of digital holography with structured illumination allows to simultaneously measure deformations and absolute 3D coordinates but also requires coherent light and has already been demonstrated in principle with a stereo camera setup. Multi-camera systems are limited to certain setup sizes given by the volume and distance of the detectors. Reducing the system to a one-camera (monocular) setup reduces space and acquisition costs. By using a multi-aperture illumination source an extremely high projection rate could be realized and reduced to a monocular approach with a novel voxel-calibration technique, while the projection system itself still requires a large amount of space. In this paper we present a miniaturized, monocular 3D-measurement system that works with repeatable, coherent speckles, generated by a fiber-coupled laser whose light was distributed by a fiber-switch to a diffuser plate connected with a measurement-head, also including a camera. By addressing different fibers through the switch, varying but repeatable patterns are generated. The size of the device (diameter < 3 cm) is now mainly limited by the volume of the camera. A first 3D-reconstruction of an object and an outlook for a combination of this system with digital holography is given, allowing absolute 3D-coordinates and relative deviations of object points to be measured simultaneously.
Accepted  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.032
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Photocrosslinkable polymers have been exploited to attain impressive advantages in printing freestanding, micrometer-scale, mechanically compliant features. However, more integrated understanding of both the polymer photochemistry and the microfabrication processes could enable new strategic design avenues, unlocking far-reaching applications of the light-based modality of additive manufacturing. One promising approach for achieving high-aspect-ratio structures is to leverage the phenomenon of light self-trapping during the photopolymerization process. In this review, we discuss the design of materials that facilitate this optical behavior, the computational modeling and practical processing considerations to achieve high aspect-ratio structures, and the range of applications that can benefit from architectures fabricated using light self-trapping—especially those demanding free-standing structures and materials of stiffnesses relevant in biological applications. Coupled interactions exist among material attributes, including polymer composition, and processing parameters such as light intensity. We identify strong opportunities for predictive design of both the material and the process. Overall, this perspective describes the wide range of existing polymers and additive manufacturing approaches, and highlights various future directions to enable constructs with new complexities and functionalities through the development of next-generation photocrosslinkable materials and micromanufacturing methods.
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Yang Du, Sergey Turtaev, Ivo T Leite, Adrian Lorenz, Jens Kobelke, et al.
Published Published online: 21 June 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.029
In-vivo microendoscopy in animal models became a groundbreaking technique in neuroscience that rapidly expands our understanding of the brain. Emerging hair-thin endoscopes based on multimode fibres are now opening up the prospect of ultra-minimally invasive neuroimaging of deeply located brain structures. Complementing these advancements with methods of functional imaging and optogenetics, as well as extending its applicability to awake and motile animals constitute the most pressing challenges for this technology. Here we demonstrate a novel fibre design capable of both, high-resolution imaging in immobilised animals and bending-resilient optical addressing of neurons in motile animals. The optimised refractive index profile and the probe structure allowed reaching a spatial resolution of 2 μm across a 230 μm field of view for the initial layout of the fibre. Simultaneously, the fibre exhibits negligible cross-talk between individual inner-cores during fibre deformation. This work provides a technological solution for imaging-assisted spatially selective photo-activation and activity monitoring in awake and freely moving animal models.
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Published Published online: 21 June 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.027
Adaptive optics systems are used to compensate for wavefront distortions introduced by atmospheric turbulence. The distortions are corrected by an adaptable device, normally a deformable mirror. The control signal of the mirror is based on the measurement delivered by a wavefront sensor. Relevant characteristics of the wavefront sensor are the measurement accuracy, the achievable measurement speed and the robustness against scintillation. The modal holographic wavefront sensor can theoretically provide the highest bandwidth compared to other state of the art wavefront sensors and it is robust against scintillation effects. However, the measurement accuracy suffers from crosstalk effects between different aberration modes that are present in the wavefront. In this paper we evaluate whether the sensor can be used effectively in a closed-loop AO system under realistic turbulence conditions. We simulate realistic optical turbulence represented by more than 2500 aberration modes and take different signal-to-noise ratios into account. We determine the performance of a closed-loop AO system based on the holographic sensor. To counter the crosstalk effects, careful choice of the key design parameters of the sensor is necessary. Therefore, we apply an optimization method to find the best sensor design for maximizing the measurement accuracy. By modifying this method to take the changing effective turbulence conditions during closed-loop operation into account, we can improve the performance of the system, especially for demanding signal-to-noise-ratios, even more. Finally, we propose to implement multiple holographic wavefront sensors without the use of additional hardware, to perform multiple measurement at the same time. We show that the measurement accuracy of the sensor and with this the wavefront flatness can be increased significantly without reducing the bandwidth of the adaptive optics system.
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Published Published online: 20 June 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.028
The viewing direction in Digital Holography can be varied if different parts of a hologram are reconstructed. In this article parallax limitations are discussed using the phase space formalism. An equation for the parallax angle is derived with this formalism from simple geometric quantities. The result is discussed in terms of pixel size and pixel number of the image sensor. Change of perspective is demonstrated experimentally by two numerical hologram reconstructions from different parts of one single digital hologram.
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Published Published online: 16 June 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.018
Previous collaborative studies have shown the main fringe patterns and their typical classification with regard to defects. Nevertheless, the complexity of the results prevents defect detection automation based on a fringe pattern classification table. The use of fringe patterns for the structural diagnosis of artwork is important for conveying crucial detailed information and dense data sources that are unmatched compared to those obtained using other conventional or modern techniques. Hologram interferometry fringe patterns uniquely reveal existing and potential structural conditions independent of object shape, surface complexity, material inhomogeneity, multilayered and mixed media structures, without requiring contact and interaction with the precious surface. Thus, introducing a concept that from one hand allows fringe patterns to be considered as a powerful standalone physical tool for direct structural condition evaluation with a focus on artwork conservators' need for structural diagnosis while sets a conceptual basis for defect detection automation is crucial. The aim intensifies when the particularities of ethics and safety in the field of art conservation are considered.There are ways to obtain the advantages of fringe patterns even when specialized software and advanced analysis algorithms fail to convey usable information. Interactively treating the features of fringe patterns through step-wise reasoning provides direct diagnosis while formulates the knowledge basis to automate defect isolation and identification procedures for machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) development. The transfer of understanding of the significance of fringe patterns through logical steps to an AI system is this work's ultimate technical aim. Research on topic is ongoing.
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Matthew L Hall, Katherine Gleave, Angela Hughes, Philip J McCall, Catherine E Towers, et al.
Published Published online: 09 June 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.020
Understanding mosquito interaction with long-lasting insecticidal bednets is crucial in the development of more effective intervention methods to protect humans from malaria transmission. As such, a 240 × 240 × 1000 mm laboratory setup for the in-line recording of digital holograms and subsequent in-focus reconstruction and 3D localisation of mosquitoes is presented. Simple bednet background removal methods are used to accurately localise a mosquito obscured by a bednet in 3D coordinates. Simulations and physical data demonstrate that this method is suitable for mosquitoes positioned 3−1000 mm behind a bednet. A novel post-processing technique, involving a cascade-correlation of a Tamura of Intensity focus metric extracted from digitally reconstructed scenes, accurately localises mosquitoes positioned 35−100 mm behind a bednet from a single digital hologram. The result of this study is a scalable digital holographic methodology to examine mosquito-bednet interaction in 3D at a level of accuracy previously only seen in 2D imaging of mosquitoes in a much smaller volume.
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Yongming Yin, Zhiping Hu, Muhammad Umair Ali, Miao Duan, Yongwei Wu, et al.
Published Published online: 06 June 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.036
One of the major challenges when fabricating high gamut colour-converted micro-light-emitting diodes (LEDs) displays is severe crosstalk effect among adjacent pixels because of the wide view-angle feature of micro-LED chips. In this study, potential factors that contribute to the crosstalk effect were systematically simulated. We observed that precisely filling the space between each micro-LED chip with a light blocking matrix (LBM) can be a promising solution to alleviate this risk. After careful investigations, a press-assisted moulding technique was demonstrated to be an effective approach of fabricating the LBM. Nevertheless, experimental observations further revealed that residual black LBM on the surface of micro-LEDs severely reduces the brightness, thereby compromising the display performance. This problem was successfully addressed by employing a plasma etching technique to efficiently extract the trapped light. Eventually, a top-emitting blue micro-LED-based backlight fine-moulded with a black LBM was developed and combined with red and green quantum dot colour-conversion layers for full-colour display. The colour gamut of our manufactured display prototype can cover as high as 122% that of the National Television Standards Committee.
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Published Published online: 19 May 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.030
Nowadays, holography translates from a pure technical tool for recording the phase and amplitude of the light wave to a widely applicable research-based method. Holographic devices are used for security enhancement, entertainment, 3D display technologies and augmented reality. Binary computer-generated holograms (amplitude or phase-based) are of specific interest. They are easy to compute and their manufacturing methods are fast and robust. In this work, a method of manufacturing amplitude-only binary holograms out of biopolymers films is proposed. Opaque cargo bits made out of different bioactive substances (antibiotics, dyes, etc.) absorb or scatter specific parts of the incoming light wave. Cargo release was conducted by submerging the produced holograms into the aqueous solution at specific pH and temperature levels. Drug elution from the film was traced out by the numerical analysis of the far-field diffraction pattern, which otherwise could only be measured post-factum using sophisticated spectroscopic or chromatography devices. This approach broadens the application of general holography over to the field of biomedical research relevant to quantitative monitoring of the drug elution.
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Published Published online: 17 May 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.033
A line-shaped beam is useful for increasing the processing speed in laser grooving and scribing. In laser grooving, depth control of the processed structure is important for performing precise processing. In this paper, in-process monitoring of the depth of a structure formed by femtosecond laser processing with a line-shaped beam using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) was demonstrated. In the evaluation of the SS-OCT system, the depth resolution, measurement accuracy, and axial measurable range were 15.8 μm, ±2.5 μm and 5.3 mm, respectively. In laser grooving, the structural shape and the distribution of deposited debris were successfully monitored. The measured depth agreed well with the depth obtained using a laser confocal microscope. The proposed method will be effective for precise laser processing with feedback control of the laser parameters based on in-process monitoring of the processed structure.
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Published Published online: 26 April 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.025
Recording and (computational) processing of complex wave fields offer a vast realm of new methods for optical 3D metrology. We discuss fundamental similarities and differences between holographic surface topography measurement and non-holographic principles, such as triangulation, classical interferometry, rough surface interferometry and slope measuring methods. Key features are the physical origin of the ultimate uncertainty limit and how the topographic information is encoded and decoded. Besides the theoretical insight, the discussion will help optical metrologists to determine if their measurement results could be improved or have already hit the ultimate limit of what physics allows.
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Published Published online: 31 March 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.023
Advanced manufacturing of retinal organoid samples from human induced pluripotent stem cells represents a promising way to study the development of retinal diseases. The retina is an epithelium composed of different cell layers with unique optical properties and detects light by photoreceptor neurons for visual function. There are still many challenges in detecting early and distinct cellular changes in retinal disease. In this paper, we study the capability of the optical transmission matrix, which fully describes the transition of a light field propagating through a scattering sample. Despite its rich information content, the transmission matrix is commonly just used for light delivery through scattering media. Digital holography is employed to measure the complex light-field information of the transmitted light. We demonstrate that singular value decomposition of the transmission matrix allows to discriminate phantom tissues with varying scattering coefficient. We apply these findings to retinal organoid tissues. Application of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chloro-phenylhydrazone (CCCP), a known inducer of retinal damage in animals, caused cell death and structural changes in human retinal organoids, which resulted in distinct changes in the transmission matrix. Our data indicate that the analysis of the transmission matrix can distinguish pathologic changes of the retina towards the development of imaging-based biomarkers.
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Published Published online: 25 March 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.016
We report variable shear interferometers employing liquid-crystal-based geometric-phase (GP) gratings. Conventional grating-based shear interferometers require two lateral shifts of the gratings to enable phase-shifting capabilities in x- and y- direction and two axial shifts of the gratings to adjust the shear amount in x- and y- direction, i.e., these systems need control of four axes mechanically. Here we show that the GP gratings combined with a pixelated polarization camera give instantaneous-phase shifting so that no mechanical movement is necessary to obtain phase shifts. Furthermore, we show that a single fixed shear with a rotational shear axis provides a more robust selection of shears while requiring the control of only one mechanical axis. We verify this statement using spatial domain and frequency domain criteria. We further show that the resolution of the reconstructed wavefield depends not only on the numerical aperture of the imaging system, the pixel size of the detector, or the spatial coherence of the source but also on the ability to determine the shear amount accurately. To improve this, we report a methodology to accurately detect the shear amounts using the second derivative of the autocorrelation function of the measured holograms, which further relaxes the requirements on mechanical stability.
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Published Published online: 14 March 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.015
The auditory system of mammals enables the perception of sound from our surrounding world. Containing some of the smallest bones in the body, the ear transduces complex acoustic signals with high-temporal sensitivity to complex mechanical vibrations with magnitudes as small as tens of picometers. Measurements of the shape and acoustically induced motions of different components of the ear are essential if we are to expand our understanding of hearing mechanisms, and also provide quantitative information for the development of numerical ear models that can be used to improve hearing protection, clinical diagnosis, and repair of damaged or diseased ears.We are developing digital holographic methods and instrumentation using an ultra-high speed camera to measure shape and acoustically-induced motions in the middle ear. Specifically we study the eardrum, the first structure of the middle ear which initializes the acoustic-mechanical transduction of sound for hearing. Our measurement system is capable of performing holographic measurement at rates up to 2.1 M frames per second. Two shape measurement modalities had previously been implemented into our holographic systems: (1) a multi-wavelength method with a wavelength tunable laser; and (2) a multi-angle illumination method with a single wavelength laser. In this paper, we present a third method using a miniaturized fringe projection system with a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror. Further, we optimize the processing of large data sets of holographic displacement measurements using a vectorized Pearson's correlation algorithm. We validate and compare the shape and displacement measurements of our methodologies using a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable gauge and sound-activated latex membranes and human eardrums.
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Published Published online: 02 March 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.011
Over the past two decades, laser beam melting has emerged as the leading metal additive manufacturing process for producing small- and medium-size structures. However, a key obstacle for the application of this technique in industry is the lack of reliability and qualification mainly because of melt pool instabilities during the laser-powder interaction, which degrade the quality of the manufactured components. In this paper, we propose multi-wavelength digital holography as a proof of concept for in situ real-time investigation of the melt pool morphology. A two-wavelength digital holographic setup was co-axially implemented in a laser beam melting facility. The solidified aluminum tracks and melt pools during the manufacturing of 316L were obtained with full-field one-shot acquisitions at short exposure times and various scanning velocities. The evaluation of the complex coherence factor of digital holograms allowed the quality assessment of the phase reconstruction. The motion blur was analyzed by scanning the dynamic melt pool.
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Published Published online: 02 March 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.012
In this study, we propose a holographic augmented reality (AR) display with a wide viewing zone realized by using a special-designed reflective optical element. A conical holographic optical element (HOE) is used as such a reflective optical element. This conical HOE was implemented to reconstruct a diverging spherical wave with a wide spread angle. It has a sharp wavelength selectivity by recording it as a volume hologram, enabling augmented reality (AR) representation of real and virtual 3D objects. The quality of the generated spherical wave and the spectral reflectivity of the fabricated conical HOE were investigated. An optical superimposition between real and virtual 3D objects was demonstrated, thereby enhancing the validity of our proposed method. A horizontal viewing zone of 140° and a vertical viewing zone of 30° were experimentally confirmed. The fabrication procedure for the conical HOE is presented, and the calculation method of the computer-generated hologram (CGH) based on Fermat’s principle is explained in detail.
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Changrui Liao, Cong Xiong, Jinlai Zhao, Mengqiang Zou, Yuanyuan Zhao, et al.
Published Published online: 24 February 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.005
Cantilevers in microelectromechanical systems have the advantages of non-labeling, real-time detection, positioning, and specificity. Rectangular solid, rectangular hollow, and triangular microcantilevers were fabricated on an optical fiber tip via two-photon polymerization. The mechanical properties were characterized using finite element simulations. Coating the microcantilever with a palladium film enabled high sensitivity and rapid hydrogen detection. The shape of the cantilever determines the sensitivity, whereas the thickness of the palladium film determines the response time. Additional microelectromechanical systems can be realized via polymerization combined with optical fibers.
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Published Published online: 16 June 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.002
This paper recounts the discovery of holographic interferometry, discusses its development, and itemizes some of its major applications.
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Published Published online: 10 June 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.035
Holographic displays have the promise to be the ultimate 3D display technology, able to account for all visual cues. Recent advances in photonics and electronics gave rise to high-resolution holographic display prototypes, indicating that they may become widely available in the near future. One major challenge in driving those display systems is computational: computer generated holography (CGH) consists of numerically simulating diffraction, which is very computationally intensive. Our goal in this paper is to give a broad overview of the state-of-the-art in CGH. We make a classification of modern CGH algorithms, we describe different algorithmic CGH acceleration techniques, discuss the latest dedicated hardware solutions and indicate how to evaluate the perceptual quality of CGH. We summarize our findings, discuss remaining challenges and make projections on the future of CGH.
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Published Published online: 09 June 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.031
This paper presents the results of 15 years of studies in the field of terahertz holography at the Novosibirsk free electron laser. They cover two areas: research on obtaining holographic images in the terahertz range and the use of diffractive optical elements to form high-power terahertz radiation fields with specified characteristics (intensity, phase, and polarization), using well-studied and widely applied in the optical range methods of optical (analog), digital, and computer-generated holography. All experiments were performed with the application of high-power coherent monochromatic frequency-tunable radiation from the Novosibirsk free electron laser. The features of hologram registration in the terahertz range are described. Methods, technologies, and optical materials for terahertz holographic elements are discussed. A wide range of promising applications of high-power terahertz fields with a given spatial structure is considered. The results of the study of terahertz holograms recorded as digital holograms, as well as radiation-resistive optical elements realized as computer-synthesized holograms, are presented.
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Published Published online: 06 May 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.019
Quantitative phase microscopy by digital holography is a good candidate for high-speed, high precision profilometry. Multi-wavelength optical phase unwrapping avoids difficulties of numerical unwrapping methods, and can generate surface topographic images with large axial range and high axial resolution. But the large axial range is accompanied by proportionately large noise. An iterative process utilizing holograms acquired with a series of wavelengths is shown to be effective in reducing the noise to a few micrometers even over the axial range of several millimeters. An alternate approach with shifting of illumination angle, instead of using multiple laser sources, provides multiple effective wavelengths from a single laser, greatly simplifying the system complexity and providing great flexibility in the wavelength selection. Experiments are performed demonstrating the basic processes of multi-wavelength digital holography (MWDH) and multi-angle digital holography (MADH). Example images are presented for surface profiles of various types of surface structures. The methods have potential for versatile, high performance surface profilometry, with compact optical system and straightforward processing algorithms.
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Published Published online: 06 May 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.026
Three-dimensional (3D) printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), has undergone a phase of rapid development in the fabrication of customizable and high-precision parts. Thanks to the advancements in 3D printing technologies, it is now a reality to print cells, growth factors, and various biocompatible materials altogether into arbitrarily complex 3D scaffolds with high degree of structural and functional similarities to the native tissue environment. Additionally, with overpowering advantages in molding efficiency, resolution, and a wide selection of applicable materials, optical 3D printing methods have undoubtedly become the most suitable approach for scaffold fabrication in tissue engineering (TE). In this paper, we first provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review of current optical 3D printing methods for scaffold fabrication, including traditional extrusion-based processes, selective laser sintering, stereolithography, and two-photon polymerization etc. Specifically, we review the optical design, materials, and representative applications, followed by fabrication performance comparison. Important metrics include fabrication precision, rate, materials, and application scenarios. Finally, we summarize and compare the advantages and disadvantages of each technique to guide readers in the optics and TE communities to select the most fitting printing approach under different application scenarios.
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Published Published online: 01 May 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.014
Imaging through random media continues to be a challenging problem of crucial importance in a wide range of fields of science and technology, ranging from telescopic imaging through atmospheric turbulence in astronomy to microscopic imaging through scattering tissues in biology. To meet the scope of this anniversary issue in holography, this review places a special focus on holographic techniques and their unique functionality, which play a pivotal role in imaging through random media. This review comprises two parts. The first part is intended to be a mini tutorial in which we first identify the true nature of the problems encountered in imaging through random media. We then explain through a methodological analysis how unique functions of holography can be exploited to provide practical solutions to problems. The second part introduces specific examples of experimental implementations for different principles of holographic techniques, along with their performance results, which were taken from some of our recent work.
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Published Published online: 01 May 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.024
Coded aperture imaging (CAI) is a technique to image three-dimensional scenes with special controlled abilities. In this review, we survey several recently proposed techniques to control the parameters of CAI by engineering the aperture of the system. The prime architectures of these indirect methods of imaging are reviewed. For each design, we mention the relevant application of the CAI recorders and summarize this overview with a general perspective on this research topic.
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Published Published online: 11 April 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.022
Since its invention, holography has been mostly applied at visible wavelengths in a variety of applications. Specifically, non-destructive testing of manufactured objects was a driver for developing holographic methods and all related ones based on the speckle pattern recording. One substantial limitation of holographic non-destructive testing is the setup stability requirements directly related to the laser wavelength. This observation has driven some works for 15 years: developing holography at wavelengths much longer than visible ones. In this paper, we will first review researches carried out in the infrared, mostly digital holography at thermal infrared wavelengths around 10 micrometers. We will discuss the advantages of using such wavelengths and show different examples of applications. In nondestructive testing, large wavelengths allow using digital holography in perturbed environments on large objects and measure large deformations, typical of the aerospace domain. Other astonishing applications such as reconstructing scenes through smoke and flames were proposed. When moving further in the spectrum, digital holography with so-called Terahertz waves (up to 3 millimeters wavelength) has also been studied. The main advantage here is that these waves easily penetrate some materials. Therefore, one can envisage Terahertz digital holography to reconstruct the amplitude and phase of visually opaque objects. We review some cases in which Terahertz digital holography has shown potential in biomedical and industrial applications. We will also address some fundamental bottlenecks that prevent fully benefiting from the advantages of digital holography when increasing the wavelength.
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Published Published online: 02 April 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.017
Optically transmissive and reflective objects may have varying surface profiles, which translate to arbitrary phase profiles for light either transmitted through or reflected from the object. For high-throughput applications, resolving arbitrary phases and absolute heights is a key problem. To extend the ability of measuring absolute phase jumps in existing 3D imaging techniques, the dual-wavelength concept, proposed in late 1800s, has been developed in the last few decades. By adopting an extra wavelength in measurements, a synthetic wavelength, usually larger than each of the single wavelengths, can be simulated to extract large phases or height variations from micron-level to tens of centimeters scale. We review a brief history of the developments in the dual-wavelength technique and present the methodology of this technique for using the phase difference and/or the phase sum. Various applications of the dual-wavelength technique are discussed, including height feature extraction from micron scale to centimeter scale in holography and interferometry, single-shot dual-wavelength digital holography for high-speed imaging, nanometer height resolution with fringe subdivision method, and applications in other novel phase imaging techniques and optical modalities. The noise sources for dual-wavelength techniques for phase imaging and 3D topography are discussed, and potential ways to reduce or remove the noise are mentioned.
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Published Published online: 02 April 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.007
Two major fields of study in optics—holography and interferometry—have developed at times independently and at other times together. The two methods share the principle of holistically recording as an intensity pattern the magnitude and phase distribution of a light wave, but they can differ significantly in how these recordings are formed and interpreted. Here we review seven specific developments, ranging from data acquisition to fundamental imaging theory in three dimensions, that illustrate the synergistic developments of holography and interferometry. A clear trend emerges, of increasing reliance of these two fields on a common trajectory of enhancements and improvements.
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Published Published online: 30 March 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.013
With the explosive growth of mathematical optimization and computing hardware, deep neural networks (DNN) have become tremendously powerful tools to solve many challenging problems in various fields, ranging from decision making to computational imaging and holography. In this manuscript, I focus on the prosperous interactions between DNN and holography. On the one hand, DNN has been demonstrated to be in particular proficient for holographic reconstruction and computer-generated holography almost in every aspect. On the other hand, holography is an enabling tool for the optical implementation of DNN the other way around owing to the capability of interconnection and light speed processing in parallel. The purpose of this article is to give a comprehensive literature review on the recent progress of deep holography, an emerging interdisciplinary research field that is mutually inspired by holography and DNN. I first give a brief overview of the basic theory and architectures of DNN, and then discuss some of the most important progresses of deep holography. I hope that the present unified exposition will stimulate further development in this promising and exciting field of research.
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Published Published online: 14 March 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.004
Fluorescent nanomaterials have long been recognized as essential contributors to the advancement of material technologies. Over the years, the rapid expansion in this massive selection of materials has led to the emergence of systems with tunable and unique fluorescent properties, occupying pivotal roles across niche areas in imaging, photonics, micro-encryption, and steganographic applications. In recent years, research interest in the translation of laser-based operations towards the production and modulation of nanomaterial fluorescence has been reignited, owing to its ease of operation and low cost. In this paper, we summarize the assortment of laser operations for the fabrication, modification, and spatial positioning of various fluorescent nanomaterials, ranging from metallic nanoparticles, carbon dots, 2D ultrathin films to wide-bandgap nanomaterials, and upconversion nanocrystals. In addition, we evaluate the importance of laser-modified fluorescence for various applications and offer our perspective on the role of laser-based techniques in the forthcoming advancement of nanomaterials.
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Published Published online: 10 March 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.008
Holographic methods for non-destructive testing, shape measurement, and experimental stress analysis have shown to be versatile tools for the solution of many inspection problems. Their main advantages are the non-contact nature, the non-destructive and areal working principle, the fast response, high sensitivity, resolution and precision. In contrast to conventional optical techniques such as classical interferometry, the holographic principle of wavefront storage and reconstruction makes it possible to investigate objects with rough surfaces. Consequently, the response of various classes of products on operational or artificial load can be examined very elegantly. The paper looks back to the history of holographic metrology, honors the inventors of the main principles, discusses criteria for the selection of a proper inspection method, and shows exemplary applications. However, the main focus is on modern developments that are inspired by the rapid technological process in sensing technology and digitization, on current applications and future challenges.
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Published Published online: 22 February 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.009
Near-eye displays are the main platform devices for many augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) applications. As a wearable device, a near-eye display should have a compact form factor and be lightweight. Furthermore, a large field of view and sufficient eyebox are crucial for immersive viewing conditions. Natural three-dimensional (3D) image presentation with proper focus cues is another requirement that enables a comfortable viewing experience and natural user interaction. Finally, in the case of AR, the device should allow for an optical see-through view of the real world. Conventional bulk optics and two-dimensional display panels exhibit clear limitations when implementing these requirements. Holographic techniques have been applied to near-eye displays in various aspects to overcome the limitations of conventional optics. The wavefront reconstruction capability of holographic techniques has been extensively exploited to develop optical see-through 3D holographic near-eye displays of glass-like form factors. In this article, the application of holographic techniques to AR and VR near-eye displays is reviewed. Various applications are introduced, such as static holographic optical components and dynamic holographic display devices. Current issues and recent progress are also reviewed, providing a comprehensive overview of holographic techniques that are applied to AR and VR near-eye displays.
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Zhe Wang, Lisa Miccio, Sara Coppola, Vittorio Bianco, Pasquale Memmolo, et al.
Published Published online: 18 February 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.010
The appearance of the first laser approximately 12 years after the invention of holography by Gabor (1948) revolutionized the field of optical metrology. In fact, the invention of holographic interferometry enabled the exploitation of interferometry on non-mirror surfaces and full-scale objects. The holography-based measurement methods has been implemented to several industrial systems or in support of R&D with the aim of improving new products in many fields (automotive, aerospace, electronics, etc.). To date, holography has been considered an important measurement tool for non-destructive inspection (NDI), strain-stress measurement, and vibration analysis at various engineering sites. Recently, the new paradigm of Industry4.0 has seen the introduction of new technologies and methods of processing materials as well as the development of manufacturing approaches for the realization of innovative products. For example, direct printing, additive, and bottom-up manufacturing processes are expected to involve new ways of making products in future, and most innovative fabrication processes will be based on the manipulation of soft matter (e.g., starting from the liquid phase) that will be shaped at the nanoscale. The inherent characteristics of digital holography (DH) make it a powerful and accurate tool for the visualization and testing of final products, as well as for in situ and real-time monitoring and quantitative characterization of the processes involved during the fabrication cycle. This review aims to report on the most useful applications of soft matter, where the capabilities offered by DH, such as three-dimensional (3D) imaging, extended focus, 3D tracking, full-field analysis, high sensitivity, and a wide range of measurements from nanometers to centimeters, permit completely non-invasive characterizations on a full-scale. Several holographic experimental results of typical samples are reported and discussed where DH plays a primary role as a tool gauge for soft matter.
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Published Published online: 27 January 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.006
Digital holographic microscopy (DHM), which combines digital holography with optical microscopy, is a wide field, minimally invasive quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) approach for measuring the 3D shape or the inner structure of transparent and translucent samples. However, limited by diffraction, the spatial resolution of conventional DHM is relatively low and incompatible with a wide field of view (FOV) owing to the spatial bandwidth product (SBP) limit of the imaging systems. During the past decades, many efforts have been made to enhance the spatial resolution of DHM while preserving a large FOV by trading with unused degrees of freedom. Illumination modulation techniques, such as oblique illumination, structured illumination, and speckle illumination, can enhance the resolution by adding more high-frequency information to the recording system. Resolution enhancement is also achieved by extrapolation of a hologram or by synthesizing a larger hologram by scanning the sample, the camera, or inserting a diffraction grating between the sample and the camera. For on-chip DHM, spatial resolution is achieved using pixel super-resolution techniques. In this paper, we review various resolution enhancement approaches in DHM and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches. It is our hope that this review will contribute to advancements in DHM and its practical applications in many fields.
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Published Published online: 26 January 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.003
In current photo-based patterning techniques, an image is projected onto a photosensitive material to generate a pattern in the area where the light is focused. Thus, the size, shape, and periodicity of the pattern are determined by the features on the photomask or projected images, and the materials themselves generally do not play an active role in changing the features. In contrast, azobenzene polymers offer a unique type of photopatterning platform, where photoisomerization of the azobenzene groups can induce substantial material movements at the molecular, micro-, and macroscales. Stable surface relief patterns can be generated by exposure to interference light beams. Thus, periodic nano- and microstructures can be fabricated with both two- and three-dimensional spatial control over a large area in a remarkably simple way. Polarized light can be used to guide the flow of solid azobenzene polymers along the direction of light polarization via an unusual solid-to-liquid transition, allowing for the fabrication of complex structures using light. This review summarizes the recent progress in advanced manufacturing using azobenzene polymers. This includes a brief introduction of the intriguing optical behaviors of azobenzene polymers, followed by discussions of the recent developments and successful applications of azobenzene polymers, especially in micro- and nanofabrication.
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Published Published online: 14 January 2022,  doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.001
This paper presents the activities in the field of shearography in chronological order and highlights the great potential of this holographic measurement technology. After a brief introduction, the basic theory of shearography is presented. Shear devices, phase-shift arrangements, and multiplexed shearography systems are described. Finally, the application areas where shearography has been accepted and successfully used as a tool are presented.
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ISSN 2689-9620

EISSN 2831-4093

Diamond Open Access