## Article

Published Published online: 01 July 2021 , doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.021
Nonlinear frequency conversion is a pathway to unlock undiscovered physics and implement tailored light sources for spectroscopy or medicine. A key challenge is the establishment of spectrally flat outputs, which is particularly demanding in the context of soliton-based light conversion at low pump energy. Here, we introduce the concept of controlling nonlinear frequency conversion by longitudinally varying resonances, allowing the shaping of soliton dynamics and achieving broadband spectra with substantial spectral flatness. Longitudinally varying resonances are realised by nanofilms with gradually changing thicknesses located on the core of an advanced microstructured fibre. Nanofilms with engineered thickness profiles are fabricated by tilted deposition, representing a waveguide-compatible approach to nano-fabrication, and inducing well-controlled resonances into the system, allowing unique dispersion control along the fibre length. Key features and dependencies are examined experimentally, showing improved bandwidth and spectral flatness via multiple dispersive wave generation and dispersion-assisted soliton Raman shifts while maintaining excellent pulse-to-pulse stability and coherence in simulations, suggesting the relevance of our findings for basic science as well as tailored light sources.
Published Published online: 25 September 2021 , doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.022
The application of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface texturing has significant potential in medicine, optics, tribology, and biology, among other areas. However, when irradiated by a large intense laser spot, the periodic structures usually exhibit an uncontrollable regularity, forming bifurcated patterns, thus limiting their widespread application. Irregularity originates from numerous independent branching seeds. The usual solution to this problem is to utilize the quasi-direct laser writing technique, that is, by limiting the laser beam size (diameter of <10 wavelengths) and scanning the beam or samples using 2D translation stages. Herein, we demonstrate an optical localization-induced nonlinear competition mechanism to solve this problem, which occurs at a fluence nearly one order of magnitude below the ablation threshold. Owing to the low intrinsic absorption of silicon and ultralow applied fluence, this mechanism ensures the self-selection of a single seed to initiate an array of bifurcated-free gratings under stationary irradiation with a large laser spot (diameter >100 wavelengths). Surprisingly, some unconventional complex patterns, such as radial, annular, and spiral gratings, can also be easily produced by structured light fields with unprecedented regularity. Their diameters reach up to >500 μm. Moreover, we can artificially control the initial seeding structure to further improve the regularity of the gratings, defined by dispersion in the ripple orientation angle in their 2D Fourier transform. As a result, the regularity in our experiments produced by a large laser spot is even higher than that scanned by a tiny beam. Controllable and highly regular ripples are beneficial to the structural coloring effects because they arise from the light diffraction by subwavelength gratings.
Published Published online: 01 August 2021 , doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.019

Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a coherent optical process that provides a narrow transparent peak within a broad absorption line in an atomic medium. All-dielectric metasurface analogues of EIT have enabled new developments in the nanophotonics field for obtaining smaller, more effective slow-light devices and highly sensitive detectors without a quantum approach. However, the dynamic control of the EIT response of all-dielectric metasurfaces has been rarely reported hitherto for the near-infrared (N-IR) region, although a broader range of applications will be enabled by a reconfigurable EIT system. In this study, we realise a chalcogenide (germanium antimony telluride, GST) metasurface, which possesses a dynamically tunable EIT response by optically driving the amorphous-crystalline phase change in the GST medium. Only a few tens of nanometres thick, the nanostructured GST film exhibits Mie resonances that are spectrally modified via laser-induced phase transitions, offering a high relative modulation contrast of 80% in the N-IR region. Moreover, an extreme dispersion that results in the ‘slow light’ behaviour is observed within this transparency ‘window’. Furthermore, the group delay of the N-IR beam switches reversibly under the phase transition. The measurement is consistent with both numerical simulation results and phenomenological modelling. Our work facilitates the development of new types of compact ultrafast N-IR holograms, filtering, and ultrasensitive detectors.

Published Published online: 01 June 2021 , doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.018

Optical scatterometry is one of the most important metrology techniques for process monitoring in high-volume semiconductor manufacturing. By comparing measured signatures to modelled ones, scatterometry indirectly retrieves the dimensions of nanostructures and, hence, solves an inverse problem. However, the increasing design complexity of modern semiconductor devices makes modelling of the structures ever more difficult and requires a multitude of parameters. Such large parameter spaces typically cause ambiguities in the reconstruction process, thereby complicating the solution of the inherently ill-posed inverse problem further. An effective means of regularisation consists of systematically maximising the information content provided by the optical sensor. With this in mind, we combined the classical techniques of white-light interferometry, Mueller polarimetry, and Fourier scatterometry into one apparatus, allowing for the acquisition of fully angle- and wavelength-resolved Mueller matrices. The large amount of uncorrelated measurement data improve the robustness of the reconstruction in the case of complex multi-parameter problems by increasing the overall sensitivity and reducing cross-correlations. In this study, we discuss the sensor concept and introduce the measurement strategy, calibration routine, and numerical post-processing steps. We verify the practical feasibility of our method by reconstructing the profile parameters of a sub-wavelength silicon line grating. All necessary simulations are based on the rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. Additional measurements performed using a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope confirm the accuracy of the reconstruction results, and hence, the real-world applicability of the proposed sensor concept.

Published Published online: 30 June 2021 , doi: 10.37188/lam.2021.006
Future quantum technology relies crucially on building quantum networks with high fidelity. To achieve this challenging goal, it is of utmost importance to connect individual quantum systems such that their emitted single photons overlap with the highest possible degree of coherence. This requires perfect mode overlap of the emitted light from different emitters, which necessitates the use of single-mode fibres. Here, we present an advanced manufacturing approach to accomplish this task. We combined 3D printed complex micro-optics, such as hemispherical and Weierstrass solid immersion lenses, as well as total internal reflection solid immersion lenses, on top of individual indium arsenide quantum dots with 3D printed optics on single-mode fibres and compared their key features. We observed a systematic increase in the collection efficiency under variations of the lens geometry from roughly 2 for hemispheric solid immersion lenses up to a maximum of greater than 9 for the total internal reflection geometry. Furthermore, the temperature-induced stress was estimated for these particular lens dimensions and results to be approximately 5 meV. Interestingly, the use of solid immersion lenses further increased the localisation accuracy of the emitters to less than 1 nm when acquiring micro-photoluminescence maps. Furthermore, we show that the single-photon character of the source is preserved after device fabrication, reaching a \begin{document}$g^{(2)} (0)$\end{document} value of approximately 0.19 under pulsed optical excitation. The printed lens device can be further joined with an optical fibre and permanently fixed.This integrated system can be cooled by dipping into liquid helium using a Stirling cryocooler or by a closed-cycle helium cryostat without the necessity for optical windows, as all access is through the integrated single-mode fibre. We identify the ideal optical designs and present experiments that demonstrate excellent high-rate single-photon emission.