, Published online: 21 June 2022
, doi: 10.37188/lam.2022.027
Adaptive optics systems are used to compensate for wavefront distortions introduced by atmospheric turbulence. The distortions are corrected by an adaptable device, normally a deformable mirror. The control signal of the mirror is based on the measurement delivered by a wavefront sensor. Relevant characteristics of the wavefront sensor are the measurement accuracy, the achievable measurement speed and the robustness against scintillation. The modal holographic wavefront sensor can theoretically provide the highest bandwidth compared to other state of the art wavefront sensors and it is robust against scintillation effects. However, the measurement accuracy suffers from crosstalk effects between different aberration modes that are present in the wavefront. In this paper we evaluate whether the sensor can be used effectively in a closed-loop AO system under realistic turbulence conditions. We simulate realistic optical turbulence represented by more than 2500 aberration modes and take different signal-to-noise ratios into account. We determine the performance of a closed-loop AO system based on the holographic sensor. To counter the crosstalk effects, careful choice of the key design parameters of the sensor is necessary. Therefore, we apply an optimization method to find the best sensor design for maximizing the measurement accuracy. By modifying this method to take the changing effective turbulence conditions during closed-loop operation into account, we can improve the performance of the system, especially for demanding signal-to-noise-ratios, even more. Finally, we propose to implement multiple holographic wavefront sensors without the use of additional hardware, to perform multiple measurement at the same time. We show that the measurement accuracy of the sensor and with this the wavefront flatness can be increased significantly without reducing the bandwidth of the adaptive optics system.